This design is based on decimal sequence watermarking showing that the embedding and decoding algorithms to improve the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is maximized and the distortion introduced in the image due to the embedding is minimized. Decimal sequences are generated when a number is represented in a decimal form in a given base r. These sequences may terminate, repeat or be aperiodic. A certain class of decimal sequences of the form 1/q, q being a prime number exhibit the property wherein the digits spaced half a period apart add up to exactly r-1, r being the base in which the number is expressed. Properties of decimal sequences have established an upper bound to the autocorrelation function. By exploiting the cross-correlation property of decimal sequences, the concept of embedding image watermark and audio watermark in the same cover image has been tested using MATLAB, PSNR values are justified.

Reference Paper: Improved Watermarking Scheme Using Decimal Sequences

Author’s Name: Shaik Ashfaq Naveed

Source: LSU Digital Commons

Year: 2005

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