Due to the vast increase in wireless standards, these standards have mostly resulted in enhanced data rates and spectral efficiency, they have also resulted in an increase in spectrum allocations. The result is spectrum deficiency. To address this problem, various techniques including spread spectrum and opportunistic access to communications can be employed. Cognitive networks can potentially solve the problems of spectrum scarcity by accommodating unlicensed (secondary) users in under-utilized segments of the spectrum. Spectrum sensing serves as the primary stimulus for cognitive radio and is vitally important for ensuring that the unlicensed users do not offer intolerable levels of interference to licensed (primary) users.

    Cooperative spectrum sensing provides the capability to cognitive networks to overcome problems related to “hidden” primary users. Grouping of CSS nodes has the potential to reduce the workload on individual nodes. Various techniques for handling of CSS nodes incorporate the creation of sub-sets or groups from within the CSS nodes in a network. However, the criteria for creating groups were not defined. Our Matlab design based on effective criteria for the creation of groups. This technique is then extended to the tasking of CSS nodes through the creation of a hierarchical structure. By effectively employing grouping criteria, we can create a hierarchy that provides advantages in terms of agility, accuracy and information gain.
Reference Paper: Grouping Technique for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radios
Author’s Name: Rizwan Akhtar, Adnan Rashdi, and Abdul Ghafoor
Source: IEEE

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